Decency Charter for Technical Communities

I want to try and attract, recruit and retain people from diverse and different backgrounds, into technology careers and technical community.

I believe that Diversity and Inclusion is a positive asset. However, it can be cast in terms of the negative ‘Code of Conduct’. I see a CoC as leading on from a Decency Charter. The Decency Charter is a positive step that will help to recruit and retain people fro different backgrounds. A CoC is a negative step that has to react when there is a problem. I’m hoping that a Decency Charter will attract individuals who are, by nature, appreciative of Diversity and Inclusion, and it can form some thinking material for people who are not as inclusive in their approach, perhaps through a lack of opportunity to have exposure to, and knowledge about, people from other backgrounds.

I have read a lot of things which focus on technology sphere and the problems that it can bring to people who are in the minority. I know, because I am one of them. I was inspired by the Decency Pledge suggested by Reid Hoffman of LinkedIn, and I can see how it can help the technical community. Rather than a Pledge, I felt that the word Charter was more universal but I’m more than happy to take feedback and please do leave comments.

It has also been my experience that some of the best and most rich friendships have come from the technology industry and community. In this group, I am fortunate to count men as well as women and there are so many men out there who are allies, possibly without even seeing themselves as such. Their kindness is valued. I have had problems, but I believe that people are mainly good at heart.

I believe that most people are great and well-intentioned, and I do not want their voices to be drowned out by people who do not have the same good intentions, goodwill, or good behaviour of the vast majority of people.

I’d like to propose a Decency Charter, which incorporates the Diversity Charter that I raised recently. I hope that you will please leave comments and perspectives. I am not arrogant and I do not assume that I never make mistakes, and I am stating this here so that it forms part of the story.

I don’t want this to be a Jen thing. I’d like to open source this, so that tech groups can show themselves for what they are: nice, smart people who want to learn, connect and share. So here goes:

light bulb Brainstorm: Decency Charter

Goal of the Decency Charter
We want  to improve, promote and maintain a healthy ethical climate of real inclusion across our community. We embrace a healthy mix of skills, views, experience and background to ensure that technical community is available equally to everyone. 
By upholding the Decency Charter, we confirm our commitment to creating a more diverse technical community, and this is a key expression of who we are.
Status:
Draft for review by interested parties
Related
Based on earlier Diversity Charter, and incorporates it

Inspiration

The Diversity Charter is part of a wider Decency Charter. It sets out more detail about positive things that the technical community can do in order to attract, recruit and  retain people from different backgrounds.

Ideas

The main objective here is to create a visible commitment to embed inclusivity and diversity throughout the community organisation. 

What we believe

We believe that all members of the technical community are equally important.
We are part a tech community where we value a diverse network, and learn and share from one another:
regardless of age,
regardless of colour,
regardless of their ethnicity,
regardless of their religion or beliefs,
regardless of disability,
regardless of gender,
regardless of sexual orientation,
regardless of their race,
regardless of their ability or lack of ability,
regardless of nationality or accent.
We are a diverse tech community where we are all individuals with differences, but we are all members and we can all learn from each other.

What we stand for

We always seek to treat those around us with warmth, understanding, and respect. We aim to act in a responsible, professional, respectful and healthy manner. We aim to treat everyone equally, fairly and with all respect. We will work tirelessly to build a more fair and safe technical community for all. 
In particular, we won’t tolerate sexual harassment or gender discrimination. We have a Zero Tolerance approach to harassment in any form. We do not ignore the power relationships that exist, and we do not favour one group over another. We will hold the same position for all  our members, and we work towards ensuring that the technical community is a welcoming, diverse and inclusive place to connect, learn and share.
We will stand with you.

What we will do

If there is an issue, we will act upon any issues that you tell us about. When complaints arise, we will take take action in a prompt, clearly defined, and consequential manner.
It’s ok not to feel totally comfortable with other people’s viewpoints. It’s what you do about it that counts. Diversity impacts everyone. 

Ways to Demonstrate Positivity

CoC
Separate document to follow but there should be clear guidelines on what people can do if something happens to them. There is a clear need for confidentiality and anonymity.
I am reviewing this section with community leaders who represent different backgrounds. religions and perspectives so I can provide a better, whole list that shows how we can demonstrate our commitment to Diversity and Inclusion. I will blog separately when this important piece of work is at a stage for public review.

Next steps for groups to show diversity

  •  Develop an inclusive website (Example: Azure WordPress implementation with WordPress add-ins for accessibility?)
  •  Develop inclusive PowerPoint materials to assist attendees with visual and hearing impairments to navigate the educational material (https://support.office.com/en-us/article/make-your-powerpoint-presentations-accessible-6f7772b2-2f33-4bd2-8ca7-dae3b2b3ef25) 
  •  Introduce local students and apprenticeships to the  technical community. This should introduce a diversity of membership.
  •  Social media advertising can include appropriate hashtags and keywords in advertising campaigns for events in order to show supporting and connecting with diverse communities. For example: #equality #empowerment #Diversity #DiversityAndInclusion 
  •  Have a clearly identified Code of Conduct / Anti Harassment Policy to show what will happen in the event of any issues (This is the next step)
  •  logo

Financial Storytelling and Data Storytelling in #PowerBI

money-1604921_1920

As a consultant, I think it’s important to understand the numbers that make up a business. It means I can provide better advice to my customers since I can read their balance sheets, understand their financial statements, and translate these numbers into effective data visualization in tools such as Tableau and Power BI.

There are a number of accounting ratios which can be used to help determine the success – or otherwise – of a business. There is no ‘magic silver bullet’ that can help to determine definitively, but it is possible to put the ratios together to make a story that will help us to understand the business better. We can tell the story better through data visualization. So we move from data storytelling to finance storytelling.

Once we have the ‘story’ behind the accounting ratios, we can start to use these as a basis for storytelling in Power BI. In this blog series, we will start to look at the accounting ratios and how they are calculated. Then, we will look at how we can visualize this information in Power BI.

Accounting Ratios

Click here to see a bigger version.

Since we are looking at accounting ratios and how we can visualize them, let’s use this flow chart as a starting point. In the next topics, we will look at what these accounting ratios mean in more detail. We will also look at some of the McKinsey modelling, such as ROIC and the calculation of value.

Accessing the Azure Wordpress Installation using FTP

Do you need to do some back-end work to secure your WordPress site on Azure? If so, you will need to do some back-end work using an FTP facility, such a FileZilla.

You will need:

  • ftp site
  • username
  • password

 

So let’s get to it!

Finding the FTP and FTPS site details for Azure WordPress

The FTP URL will look something like this:

ftp://waws-prod-aa10-000.ftp.azurewebsites.windows.net

You can find it by searching for the Diagnostics Logs section of the App service. Can you see the sections for FTP and FTPS? They are marked in red.

Find FTP and FTPS details

Finding the User Name and Password

Again, you can find these from the Azure portal. Go to the App service, and look for Deployment Credentials. You can reset them here, and use those details as the FTPS username and password.

Deployment Credentials

 

Using FileZilla

I use FileZilla Pro because it connects to Azure, Google Cloud, Amazon and other sources as well. It’s not expensive and I like having everything in one place.

Here is a sample of the Site Settings in FileZilla.  The FTP URL goes into the Host settings. You can leave out the Port number. The FTP User goes in the User Box, and the Password goes into the Password box.

FileZilla

After that, you should be good to go. I hope you manage to fly with WordPress in Azure!

 

Unpicking Diversity myopia: not seeing is not understanding, and not valuing differences

I’m excited about my Diversity meetup at Microsoft Ignite, and I wanted to share some thoughts about it in advance.

The term or word prejudice comes from the Latin prae + judicium meaning to try in advance. Prejudice is literally a pre-judgement about the characteristics and desirability of a person or a thing. Everyone has their heuristics about how the world works, but this can be dangerous when it slips into prejudices, and often we cannot see what these prejudices are.

I have been puzzling over the statement that I hear sometimes: I’m already diverse, I don’t need to worry about diversity because I never judge people on their race, gender or beliefs. I don’t think that’s true, and I think people can have a diversity myopia, which means that they believe that they place themselves beyond seeing differences in people, as if that makes them more logical somehow. My argument instead is that, by seeing, valuing and understanding differences, it gives us another superpower or another lens by which to understand situations, people, and ourselves. This is the true mark of a leader and it would make us better leaders to be able to see, understand and value diversity. However, we can’t hold the view consistently that we ‘don’t see differences’ and then claim to be already sensitive to diversity. If you don’t see, understand or value differences, then you can’t be sensitive to diversity, either.

Leaders who understand diversity, prejudice and the dynamics of change, will manage them better in themselves and in other people. We all experience work situations where our professional requirements, demands and responsibilities conflict with our ethics and values. The resolution of these situations require skills that are not part of any job descriptions: they require real thought. These are opportunities for reflexive leadership: self-reflection and deep thought, which is quite at odds with the way that we normally skate on the surface of our busy lives (Alvesson, Blom, and Sveningsson, 2016).

Diversity Myopia can be evidenced by the statement: “I see everyone purely in terms of merit and I don’t see their characteristics.”

To succeed, leaders need to be skilful in recognizing and managing diversity, as well as valuing it. Davidson (2011) puts forward this concept of leveraging differences to help us to navigate the complexities of diversity. Leveraging Differences is the ability to use people’s distinctiveness, uniqueness, competencies and perspectives in order to make the organization more effective. How can we leverage differences?

fantasy-2824304_1920

Credit: https://pixabay.com/en/users/kellepics-4893063/ 

Seeing the Differences

Firstly, we have to see the difference. One of the signs of diversity myopia is the claim that one does not see differences. If you cannot see differences, how can you be sensitive to them? Some of the differences are obvious, such as language, sex or ethnicity. Other ways, such as specific disabilities which are not obvious, are not easy to see.

Understanding the Differences

It’s important to understand the differences in order to leverage them successfully, and to make people comfortable as part of your team. We can do this in all sorts of ways: for example, I have spent this weekend reading about religions with a focus on Islam and Zoroastrianism (Mazdayasna) in order to try and educate myself, and understand them better. I am not claiming to be an expert in either religion, but I learned a lot that I did not know before.

If we do not try to understand differences, then we are working on prejudices and over-simplified stereotypes. This means that we can be working under a confirmation bias, so self-awareness never impinges on our consciousness to hint that we are anything other than ‘diverse-aware’.

forward-3277752_1920

Valuing Differences

Understanding diversity can be transformative, and it results from an active and sustained seeing, understanding and respecting differences. There is no way that we can tick a box and state that we are ‘diverse-aware’ now. It is an ongoing process, and it is a long-term relationship which changes your life.

Priorities can change because you understand people’s priorities better. It means that you can start to care more deeply about other issues that others care about; the environment, for example. For me personally, it has given me a wider vision of the world that I live in, and it means that I have become a lot calmer about transient problems that I might otherwise have been. It also means that I can step away from people and problems that are simply toxic, because I have found other things to care about, and to spend my energy on. The thing with diversity is that it is amost addictive; it gives me more to care about, and I want to know more, so I learn more and that gives me more, bigger things to care about.

This is the personal changes that this has brought for me. What can you do in order to learn more about Diversity?

  • Be curious and learn
  • Be an active listener
  • Be prepared to have the humility and self-awareness to get things wrong
  • Be prepared to work at conflicts that matter, and to see them through, even if it challenges your core beliefs.
  • Be prepared to think that what other people have said is true.

Rethink the data outside of a confirmation bias. I think that this is missing from a lot of the dialogue that I see on Twitter, for example. Genuine grievances, such as the MeToo campaign, can be dismissed under the guise ‘that doesn’t happen everywhere’ or even disbelief disguised as a statement ‘if a woman really had been attacked, then she would not do this / go there / do that, would she?’ Inquiry and thoughtfulness can help us to be more open and understanding in communication.

What does diversity myopia mean for the business?

For the business, diversity can help us to understand our business processes and systems. It can help businesses to remain innovative and engaged with customers and team members, because the veil of having diversity-myopia has been lifted.

Seeing, understanding and valuing differences is challenging, but it can help us to move in directions that we didn’t see before.

I am learning a lot, and I will continue to do so for the rest of my life. I look forward to your thoughts and comments.

References

Alvesson, M., Blom, M. and Sveningsson, S., 2016. Reflexive Leadership: Organising in an imperfect world. Sage.

Davidson, M.N., 2011. The end of diversity as we know it: Why diversity efforts fail and how leveraging difference can succeed. Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Why is it so difficult to report harassment, and what can you do to help?

This is a personal blog and it is from the heart. This incident is separate from the MeToo incident that I wrote about previously.

When I was 24, I moved to Aberdeen, in Scotland, to start a new postgraduate degree in Artificial Intelligence. On my last night in my home town before I left to go to Aberdeen, I celebrated with childhood friends in a local restaurant, which had a little dance floor and a bar. In the bar, I met an ex-boyfriend, and I ignored him. He tried to speak with me, and I told him to leave me alone.

I went up to dance with my friend, and my ex-boyfriend followed me and continued to hassle me. His first punch came from nowhere and I only remember being hit directly in the face, and everything going red, and falling backwards. I don’t remember anything after that punch. I only remember, vaguely, my friend Christine screaming and screaming and screaming and I could only hear her, and everything was red. I remember idly wondering why she was screaming but then I lost consciousness. I only woke up the next day in bed, covered in scratches and bruises and I felt like I had bad whiplash.

After the punch that took me to the floor, he hauled me up by one arm and was punching me with the other. Then, I was kicked about on the dancefloor, unconscious. My ex-boyfriend was pulled off me and he went to the bar. I was taken home by my friend in a taxi. I don’t remember any of it. I wasn’t drinking much because I am not a heavy drinker; it was the initial punch that took me out. I weigh about 100 pounds and I’m not quite five foot two. It was no contest, really.

After that, the bar/restaurant went back to normal; people eating, drinking. I have no awareness of the events after my attack. All I do know is that my ex was told to leave the bar, and some men in the bar followed my ex-boyfriend outside. They beat him unconscious in an act of revenge, which I did not instigate. I do not approve and there is no joy in it for me.

The next day, I decided I would go to the police, after going to the hospital. As I learned about the events afterwards, I began to understand that I could not go to the police. I didn’t want the very well-meaning men to get into any trouble; their attack on him had been down to his attack on me. So, I felt responsible, even though I was not there.

His mother called me to see if I was ok. She told me that she’d raised a monster, and that I should stay away from him. And I did; I never saw him again. I started my postgraduate degree with my body covered in the vestiges of his attack on me. He used to wear a ring and I had scratches from where it landed on my body, with the weight of his fist behind it.

I am writing about it now because, all these years later, I regret not going to the Police and reporting it. I had so many witnesses, and I should not have felt responsible for the actions of the well-meaning men who wreaked revenge on him. But I did. I think that victims can feel that all problems end with them, and that they are the only ones who can fix things even though they are the victim. That’s why you end up absorbing so much.

I never felt any victory that he’d got beaten up. I don’t think he learned anything at all. I learned a few years later that he’d attacked his then-current girlfriend, a woman I vaguely knew. I felt responsible for her.

I don’t think that those well-meaning men should have beaten him up. This deprived me of control of the situation. Revenge was not theirs to give; it was mine to take, going through the courts and speaking to the Police. It is the best way to secure long-term sanctions on their behaviour. I understand that they thought they were doing the right thing. I did not hear about their revenge attack until the next day, and I was aghast. I understand that they felt that they had to do something.

My choice? For me, honestly, being a witness, and making my voice louder, would have been the right thing to do in the longer-term. By taking action in place of me, they essentially took my control, my choices and my voice away from me; my experience, my suffering, went unheard. I was not being allowed to drive the situation, and that’s what I wanted. I wasn’t consulted. I don’t believe women are weak fools at all and I don’t need people to speak for me. I just need my voice to be helped to carry, and, by ‘speaking’ for me, they were taking away from me the very things that would secure the most likely outcome for ensuring that he did not do it again.

Women need to be heard and believed. We don’t need talked for, talked at, or talked over. When we talk about #MeToo incidents, often you will hear women say that they feel better after speaking out. They don’t say that they feel better because someone else did something or spoke for them; they want control back. Loss of control means no options, and not having options is a terrible way to live your life.

By going to the Police and trying to secure a conviction against him, I could have helped to make sure that he would have had a record, which would have warned off future victims. And I was wrong not to see that. In the later incident, the one I wrote about in the MeToo blog, I was very well aware that other women would suffer in the same way I did, so I did my best to make sure it was stopped before it started. That made me feel responsible, and I have paid the price of the highest level of guilt since since I was not successful in the process. Victim blaming can often include the victim themselves, and we do not need told what to do. The world will make you feel small, if you let it.

After the separate #MeToo incident, I was given some medical counselling. Due to a shortage, during the counselling process, I was paired with a male counsellor and I am going to call him Edward. Edward taught me many things. He taught me that your friends are not the ones who spend time with you or who even like you. Edward helped me to see that I had choices, even though I felt that my choices were taken away from me. Edward helped me to feel as if I had control back, even though the control of everything, even that of my own body, had been slipping away from me. In doing these things, Edward helped me to get my voice back.

I never got to thank Edward. One day, I called to speak to him, and I was told that he’d fallen ill, and he wasn’t coming back. I never called again. One of my regrets in life is that I never got to thank him and I hope that he found someone in his life as precious and supportive of him, as he was to me. There are good people there and they flit in and out of our lives, leaving a thread of love that you can see if you are looking for it.

Inspired by Edward, who strove to ‘to tame the savageness of man and make gentle the life of this world’, I am going to put forward a list of what you can do to help. This is based on a few sources, but mainly Rape Crisis Scotland should be credited here.

Do:

  • Listen. Good or ‘active’ listening means you help the victim develop their own
    thoughts so they can look at options and make their own decisions. It’s not up to you.
  • Stay calm.
  • Be comfortable with silence.
  • Encourage
  • Take notes
  • Ensure safety
  • Read this list from RAINN in case an incident has happened
  • Listen. Keep the cakehole shut.
  • Accept and don’t judge
  • Be patient.
  • Take the lead from the victim– it is important for them to feel in control
  • Avoid asking intrusive questions.
  • Learn about sexual violence and its effects
  • Learn about ways of coping with these effects
  • Ask them what they need from you
  • Look after yourself too
  • If you think what you’re going to say sounds thoughtless, it probably is. So shut up.

Don’t:

  • Judge
  • Instruct
  • Decide for the victim
  • Feel responsible
  • Ask loaded questions, opinions and comments such as ‘you could have done such and such couldn’t you?’ or ‘you must be feeling terrible?’
  • Use ‘should’ or ‘if I were you’. If you are going to do tell me what to do, just go away. You are not helping.

I’m going to end, as I sometimes do, with a poem.

“Even in our sleep,

pain which cannot forget,
falls drop by drop upon the heart until,

in our own despair,
against our will,
comes wisdom

through the awful grace of God.” – Aeschylus

Fixing ‘Could not create Directory’ in Azure WordPress installation of Elementor Pro

I have ported my Data Relish company website over to Azure. It isn’t finished yet, and I’m making the final touches. I’m using WordPress on Azure and it’s been good experience in understanding how the moving parts of Azure, Office 365 and WordPress all hang together.

In trying to update Elementor Pro, I got the following error message:

An error occurred while updating Elementor Pro: Could not create directory. elementor-pro/modules/assets-manager/asset-types/fonts

After some digging around, it turns out that this is due to the length of the directory name. The long filename was causing an issue, and sub-directories increased the length of the filename so they simply could not get created.

In order to sort the issue, you have to use the Windows Compatibility Fix

Once the Fix is applied, it’s possible to create directories, and the upgrade to the latest edition of Elementor Pro should proceed as expected.

I hope that helps you to fly farther with WordPress!

Motivating Teams and Individuals: Reward Systems

What is motivation? Willingness to exert high levels of effort toward organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need or desire (Robbins, p.168). Motivation is studied in terms of how it refers to other things, such as needs, drives, goals, incentives of disincentives. (McKenna, E., 1996).

Work motivation can be described as a willingness to apply one’s efforts towards the achievement of the organisation’s goals, while concurrently an individual need is satisfied.​

What is the main interest of managers in motivation?​ Managers and Leaders need to work on motivation in order to achieve objectives for the organisation and the team​. The  aim should be to change employees’ motivations from what they are, to what the manager wants them to be (Purcell et al, 2003)​

Therefore, it is related to performance. Performance is behaviour​ because you are doing something. Concepts of performance involve ‘levels’ of performance and ‘quality’ of performance​, which means that performance is linked to measurement​. Therefore, motivation is key to achieving good performance.

The key theories of motivation involve

  • content theories – the ‘what’ of motivation – This is based on Outcome and Reward
  • process or Cognitive theories – the ‘how’ of motivation – cognitive processes used to connect effort with outcome or reward)

The ‘internal forces that impel action and the external forces that can act as inducements to action’ ​ (Locke and Latham, 1979)​.  There are three main aspects of action:​

  • direction of choice
  • levels of effort or intensity
  • duration or persistence

​Latham and Locke (1979), cited in McKenna (2000), distinguish between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation is derived from expectation of receiving extrinsic or tangible reward (e.g. promotion or pension).​ Intrinsic motivation is derived from expectation of receiving intrinsic or ‘psychological’ reward (e.g. recognition, respect or an Award).

Content Theories

Content theories can be listed below:

  • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs​
  • Alderfer’s ERG hierarchy – ERG (existence-relatedness-growth)​
  • Herzberg’s two factor theory​
  • McClelland’s achievement motivation theory​
  • Hackman and Oldman’s job characteristics model.​

These theories mostly adopt a universal approach, and they assume all people possess a common set of needs. They assume that people have a bucket of motivations that await gratification, and this is used to explain why people choose to act in one way and not another.

Content Theories are described next:

Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs is probably the most well-known, and the theory probably stops there for a lot of people. However, it was later refined by other content authors, and then the emphasis turned to more cognitive theories.

heirarchyofneeds

Credit: Penn State Leadership https://sites.psu.edu/leadership/2014/11/29/prepare-for-success-path-goal-theory-and-maslows-needs-hierarchy/ 

 Alderfer’s ERG theory summarizes these needs into three related needs:​

  • existence needs​
  • relatedness needs​
  • growth needs.​

More than one need can be activated at any one time, and we can regress back to a lower need if a higher need is not met. This is known as the ‘frustration regression’ process.

McClelland’s Achievement Needs Theory (1961) perceives motivation as being influenced by three trait-like needs: achievement, power, affiliation and belonging. Traits are based on experience and can be developed and honed, for example, through training or positive reinforcement through hierarchical positioning.

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Herzberg (1996) is consistent with the earlier theories of Maslow, and, at its simplest, states that people are motivated towards things that make them feel good, and away from things that make them feel bad. There is plenty of empirical evidence to support this idea; if you consider going to the gym at 6am as an example, how does that make you feel? Most people will stay in bed because it makes them feel good. Herzberg applies this idea to the workplace.

two-factor-theory-herzberg-toolshero

Credit: https://www.toolshero.com/psychology/theories-of-motivation/two-factor-theory-herzberg/ 

Cognitive Theories

Cognitive Theories, or Process theories, view humans as actors who want to produce an impact and an effect on their environment, and that humans are fundamentally life-long learners who want to learn skills and new things. We have a need for new information, data and wisdom. Certainly, in my experience, no customer ever has ever said ‘We have enough reports and data now’. We always want to pitch forward with our data.

In this view, humans are essentially purposeful and individua. We understand our risks, and we make plans and set a course. These cognitive or process theories acknowledge choice, and discuss how behaviour is initiated, directed and re-directed, and terminated altogether.

The key theories include:

  • expectancy theory​
  • goal-setting theory​
  • equity theory.​

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory  postulates that individuals will behave or act in a certain way because they are motivated to select a specific behaviour over other behaviours. The choice depends on their expectations on what they perceived the outcome of the behaviour to produce.

f0070_01

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory

F (Motivation) = V x I x E

V = Valence or value an individual places on  the reward. ​

I = Instrumentality or the extent to which the individual believes carrying out an action will lead to positive reward/outcome. ​

E = Expectancy or the perception that a behaviour/effort will lead to desired level of performance.

Locke’s Goal Setting Theory (1968) may be something that you use a lot. Have you seen SMART objectives? They arise from Locke’s theory. Goals must be:​

  • specific and challenging​
  • capable of objective measurement​
  • attainable and time bound​
  • owned and accepted by employees.​
  • Prompt, precise feedback required so people know how they are doing​

Equity Theory (Adams, 1965) postulates that employees consider the inputs they bring to the work in relation to the outputs. It is a balance between inputs and perceived rewards they gain as a result of their inputs.  ​It is particularly important for performance appraisal and reward, since a perception of unfair or unjust treatment will be demotivating.

Does money motivate?

It is implied as a motivator in content theories e.g. Taylorism, Maslow, Locke  etc and therefore is implied as a motivator.​ Barber and Bretz (2000) suggest that money is among the most important factors for people when deciding on a job.​ Anecdotal evidence from exit interviews shows that money is the key reason why demotivated employees leave the job or they leave to earn more elsewhere.

Some theorists argue against the idea that it is a main motivator, such as eming, Herzberg, Kohn, Deci and Ryan, Pfeffer​. The theme here is that a job gives people meaning, purpose, commitment and engagement. Job satisfaction is also considered to be a primary motivator.

Some research shows that money can reduce the effectiveness of intrinsic engagement. For example, Deci et al (2001) found that “rewards as a motivational strategy is a risky proposition”.

A reasonable conclusion is that money is a motivator for some and most will not work without pay, but it depends on individual circumstances and other factors.​ “The question of whether money is a motivator that can lead to improved performance is a very complex one and the answer is by no means clear” (Latham 2007).

Here, we can combine expectancy and equity, by perceiving it as a vicious cycle for some individuals. The individual might be motivated to increase inputs, in the hope of getting increased rewards or outputs. People who are underpaid can see their role in terms of cost rather than value, thereby decreasing overall performance of the team because the competition within the team has been increased. If the value of the role is perceived as equitable to the cost, or amount of pay or reward, then the perception of fairness and balance is met.

Position and reward distribution need to be met fairly, or one team may not feel valued. If the reward distribution is perceived as being concentrated at C level at the expense of others, this can result in a perception of unfairness. There have been plenty of stories recently about overpaid C-suite members!

The reward mix is also important. The gender pay gap is well documented, and the finding is replicated across the world (Costa Dias, Joyce, and Parodi, F., 2018).

Conclusion

The reality is that motivation is a difficult and complex topic and there is the element of choice. That said, understanding people’s motivations can impact performance so there is a real need to understand this complex topic, in order to demystify people’s choices and make possible predictions and outcomes on their behaviour.

References

Adams, J. Stacy. “Inequity in social exchange.” In Advances in experimental social psychology, vol. 2, pp. 267-299. Academic Press, 1965.

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